Ch-1 | India & It’s Location | NCERT Class 9

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  • India is one of the ancient civilizations of the world.
  • It has moved forward displaying remarkable progress in the field of agriculture, industry, technology and overall economic development.


  • India is a vast country. Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • The mainland extends between latitudes 8°4’N and 37°6’N and longitudes 68°7’E and 97°25’E.
  • The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30’N) divides the country into almost two equal parts.


  • The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million square km.
  • India’s total area accounts for about 2.4 percent of the total geographical area of the world.
  • India is the seventh largest country in the world.
  • India is bounded by the young fold mountains in the northwest, north and northeast.
  • From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh there is a time lag of two hours.
  • Hence, time along the Standard Meridian of India  (82°30’E) passing through Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time for the whole country.


  • India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.
  • Our southern neighbors across the sea consist of the two island countries, namely Sri Lanka & Maldives.
  • Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar while Maldives Islands are situated to the south of the Lakshadweep Islands.

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