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Ch-6 | Population | NCERT Class 9

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SUMMARY

WHY DO WE STUDY POPULATION?

  • Population is the pivotal element in social studies.
  • It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning. ‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all meaningful only in relation to human beings.
  • Their numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities provide the basic background for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment.
  • Human beings are producers and consumers of earth’s resources.
  • Therefore, it is important to know how many people are there in a country, where do they live, how and why their numbers are increasing and what are their characteristics.
  • The census of India provides us with information regarding the population of our country.

WHAT IS CENSUS?

  • A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically.
  • In India, the first census was held in the year 1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881.
  • Since then, censuses have been held regularly every tenth year.
  • Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data.

AREAS TO FOCUS

  1. Population Size and Distribution
  2. Population Growth and Processes of Population Change
  3. Characteristics or Qualities of the Population

POPULATION SIZE & DISTRIBUTION

  1. SIZE : 121 crores (1.21 Billion) [acc. to Census 2011]
  2. DISTRIBUTION : 3.28 million square kms (in India)

Almost half of India’s population lives in just 5 states. These are (in descending order of population strength)

  1. Uttar Pradesh
  2. Maharashtra
  3. Bihar
  4. West Bengal
  5. Andhra Pradesh

Note: India has just 2.4% area of the world but 16.7% of the world’s population.

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION BY DENSITY

  • Population Density is uneven in India due to various Geographical Factors such as Plains/Hills, Rivers, Groundwater availability, agriculture & the resultant socio-economic factors.
  • Overall India has a Population Density of 382 persons per square km. (2011 Census)
  • Most Dense States:
    1. Bihar: 1102 persons per sq. km
    2. West Bengal: 1029
    3. Kerala: 859
    4. Uttar Pradesh: 828
  • Least Dense States:
    1. Arunachal Pradesh: 17
    2. Mizoram: 52
    3. Sikkim: 86

POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESS OF CHANGE

DECADAL GROWTH OF POPULATION IN INDIA

India’s Population has grown steadily each decade (since recorded) except the Census of 1921.

Decadal Growth of Population

In 1921 the Population declined from 25.21 to 25.13 crores because of Famines and also because of World War 1 casualties to soldiers (although not very predominant in causing decline in population)

This decline is called the GREAT DIVIDING LINE.

PROCESS OF CHANGE

Birth Rate + Death Rate + Migration

  • Birth Rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
  • Death Rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
  • Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between countries)

AGE COMPOSITION

  • Adults in the Age Group of 15-59 years are the DEMOGRAPHIC DIVIDEND of the country.
  • India needs it’s demographic dividend for growth in the near future as the population of the west is ageing up and they have to outsource jobs to the youth of India & China.

Age Composition of Indian Population

SEX RATIO

  • Sex Ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population.
  • India’s Sex Ratio is 940 / 1000.
  • States with lowest Sex Ratio:
    • Haryana, J&K, Sikkim
  • States with highest Sex Ratio
    • Kerala, North-East India, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka

Sex Ratio of Indian Population

LITERACY

  • Literacy is an important indicator of Human Development Index.
  • Census defines literate as anyone above 7 years of age who can read and write with full understanding (in any language).
  • Literacy Rate of India – 74.04% (Census of India 2011)
    • Rural Literacy : 68.9%
    • Urban Literacy : 85%

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